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Topic : Social Welfare and Ageing in Tanzania  

Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. The national ageing policy defines ageing as a biological process which has its own dynamic, largely beyond human control. The age of 60 years and above, is considered to be the beginning of old a ...Click here to read more

Comments From TAKNET Members
Festo E. Maro  : Monday, May 3, 2010    

Dr. Khmis, thanks for smoothing up concern raised by Mr. Gabor and elevating it further with examples. As you neatly describe on the possibilities of using bank accounts as an alternative way for inclusive social security, in practice this could be a solution of including the population in the informal sector domain. However, there is no guarantee if the entire population working in the informal sector will accept and be in terms with the arrangement. I would appreciate receiving views from others concerning Dr. Khamis's opinion.


Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Friday, April 9, 2010    

Mr.Gabor’s point of a guarantee that the fund(s) will be there during old days has to be taken seriously.That is why I suggested about a private pension scheme in addition to the governmental or company pension.If people can open a sort of pension account at a bank for example DRDB-bank, his/her servings will be there when the time comes for pension.The bank will not spend your money since it knows that it will have to pay you.One can deposit a small amount of money monthly starting from for example at 25-30 years of age.When you are at the age of 60 years old you can ask the bank to pay you back your money with interest every month with some conditions. This can be 1. The bank pays you monthly for a period of 5 years or 10 years. Or you can ask the bank to pay you for the rest of your life time.The bank will calculated all these possibilities and show you how much will receive per month in those 3 cases.

People are always thinking in that way “ Oh will the pension money be there when its time to get my pension”!People in Scandinavia are also thinking like this.But when the time is ripe for “pension”, the money is there! They receive their pension money each month without problems throughout their life time.

Those Tanzanians who are “outside the tax system” can be advised to seek the help of our banks such as mentioned above.Actually if they have bank accounts the bank can calculate how much tax they have to pay every year.This will be the base for their pension.If we make sure that every Tanzanian pays tax there will be no pension problems since everyone who pays tax wil receive pension.The Masai for example have to pay tax according to the number of animals(cattle ,goats etc) he has.This will be on the yearly basis.Give evey cow a registered nimber similar to that given to cars and in this way we can control the number of cows,goats a Masai have. This method is applied in EU countries.Every farmer has to give the number of cows he/she has and every cow is registered and has a number.

What about MPF is it existing? I am myself liable to MPF scheme as I have worked at STAMICO but I don’t know that I will get that money although I have my MPF-Card since I have been away from Tanzania for a quite a long time!

Mr.Festo Maro, your last request concerning examples from other countries please ask The Swedish Embassy, Danish Embassy, Norway Embassy and Finland Embassy in Dar es Salaam.These Embassies will provide you with details about the different types of pension schemes from their countries.You can even ask the Swedish Embassy that you want to visit Sweden in order to make research about their Pension System and the Penion Union.I can accompany you if you need help in understanding the Swedish Language since I speak it fluently like my mother  language(Swahili)!




Festo E. Maro  : Wednesday, March 31, 2010    

I am glad that the discussion on social welfare and ageing is picking up and it is moving deep to informal from informal sector and unavailing gender consideration aspects. As a moderator I will like to pick key messages for informing policy but am afraid most of the discussions are in a vicious cycle of sharing experiences and importance of inclusion certain group or sector without linking to the national policy on ageing. I encourage members to go further breaking the vicious cycle by providing policy recommendation statements and how to implement it. Policy makers are convinced if they are provided with scenarios of policy recommendation.

Having saying that there are really good points raised regarding inclusion of informal sector in pension schemes. The contribution of this sector to employment is nearly 75% of the active population. Most of their activities are outside the tax system and tend to be mobile including some of their assets. How can they be administered for a sustainable social security scheme? What policy prescription can be written to policy makers? can someone provide a best practice from elsewhere?

I also found a point about gender consideration where a pension scheme for women was suggested. This is real an interesting point due to the contribution of the women in economic development. About 60% of agriculture labors are women and they perform 90% of all farm works yet majorities are poor. When they reach at old age they become even more vulnerable and insecure. Now how can pension scheme be designed to capture these hard working women? What policy prescription can be advanced to policy makers? Is there any best practice from elsewhere?

I have also noted the discussion do not feature in strategic interventions in pension industry. Previously I asked your opinion regarding the recommendation given to the government from IFM to establish a regulatory board to oversee operations of pension schemes in the country. I have some policy provoking questions that I would like your opinions and possibly policy prescriptions. According to Integrated Labor Survey Report 66% of urban population work in informal sector and 84% of rural population primary activities are in informal sector. Despite there is small segment of population working in the formal sector, why there are many pension schemes? And how do this pension institutions manage to survive and invest? It should be known that pension schemes take percentage of their member’s salary. This means some percentage of the money circulation within the economy is retained. And if re-invested it results into delay payments to beneficiaries until investment yield profit. The question is how should this pension schemes be regulated to avoid interference with money circulation and delayed payments to beneficiaries?

I will appreciate if I will be able to receive examples in other countries indicating the number of pension schemes operating in comparison to economic indicators such as number of people employed in formal sector, rate of economic growth, employement by sector, etc (as you see relevant). This is important for recommending issues that can be regulated by the pension scheme board envisaged to be established. This will help us to make strategic recommendations to the pension scheme industry in the country.


Gabor Z Siklosi  : Tuesday, March 30, 2010    

It seems that there is much hesitation on people putting into any pension scheme where there are no guarantees that their funds would be there when they needed them. Participants would need to be contractually guaranteed that all they are working for would be accessible in their later years. And that any other entity--government or otherwise would not be able to use those funds. 

On a larger scale therefore the issue is perhaps a lack of trust and assurances being adequate for participants. 



Elizabeth Lema  : Monday, March 29, 2010    

This is a very good point Sophia

Unfortunately in Tanzania most of the pension funds schemes are tailored to cut for people who work in the formal sector just like many health insurances companies.

Among the reasons argued are that the informal sector industry is not well developed, are unreliable and there are no good systems in place ensure timely informal sector contributions to the social welfare scheme. I think that the informal sector has grown and contribute a huge amount of the GDP as well as individual household’s income compared to the formal sector.

Therefore what is actually needed is to put in place social welfare schemes which are linked to the private or informal sector just like PPF (Parastatal’s Pensions Funds) or National social security funds (NSSF).Another way is to ask individual people who are willing to join and contribute to the social welfare schemes as their future’s saving. I believe it can be done as it is with the mushrooming of SACCOS where as people through their informal contributions are able to establish the savings of the community groups .What is needed is creativity, educating the community  and pilot of the scheme prior scaling up.


Festo E. Maro  : Sunday, March 28, 2010    
  To add something on the pension for the aged, I can relate it with the issue of birth control measures to combat population growth. In many African communities having many children is sign of wealth. Parent feel insecure at old age hence tend to have larger family size. They expect one of their children will take care when become aged due to the lack of clear pension for the aged. To ensure for their old age survivor, they work hard in providing good education to their children so they can be employed in well paying job. This is a reason why some of the parents curse children if they do not provide care when they are at old age.

This is explains why many people have to take care of the old parents in order to earn some "blessings" from them. It is even written in Christian books that honor your father and mother so that your days may be many!!!!! Even if one may not want to live long!

Currently youth are faced with many challenges including AIDS, drug addiction etc which ends claiming lives of the victims. These threats have forced parents to have many children expecting one will escape from those threats to take care at old age.

Then with unstable economies these parent expect that not all of them will be poor. They will be remitting for their old age survivor in anyhow. In a nut shell, if there is a clear pension system to everyone, and social welfare for aged, the government will be able combat population growth indirectly. by Kamala Lutatinisibwa : Sunday, March 28, 2010 edited by moderator.

Paul John Salia  : Sunday, March 28, 2010    

A response to Kiwamba Said

The voluntary Membership with the pension fund is seemingly a good idea but we need to look at it from different angles. After all who are these people who can attain this membership? Ideally they should be those ones who are employed in the formal sector i.e. ones who are earning salaries. If this stands out to be the criterion then, the introduction of voluntary arrangement is not making any different. In other words, the difference is the same since by legal obligation (de jure) any person who is formally employed should contribute to at least one pension fund.

Another important point to note is that even if any individual (formally or informally employed) were given that opportunity still the strategy would not be an effective social security measure especially because of its coverage. The reality of the matter is that quite few Tanzanians can benefit. What about the poor people in both rural and urban areas who struggle to just survive on daily basis? Are they going to find the idea of joining and even saving little amount (even as Tsh 1000) viable? Can they afford it any way?

Pension funds and/or similar arrangement in the developed countries are effective, I think, manly because already people are having somehow substantial sources of income – even if is by transfers and similar arrangements. To me the best approach to be taken by Tanzania and other poor countries could be addressing the issue of mass poverty first (of course with due consideration of income poverty) before blind imitation of what other people in the developed countries have in place. Should one size fit all?


KIWAMBA SAID  : Sunday, March 28, 2010    
  Absolutely, that many women are in informal sector in which the coverage for the pension schemes today based very much in the formal sector and hugely abandoning this group ( i.e. informal sector) and it is true that by the time these people get old they will never have any sort of protection which shall evenctually lead them to leave under deadly poverty.
 Nowdays most of the pension schemes has introduced Voluntary Membership in which any person can join and get all the benefit packages under the fund, for instance Local Authorities Pensions Fund ( LAPF) and National Social Security Fund (NSSF) has already introduced this sort of membership (Voluntary Membership). What I see on my side its all about conveying of information to this group.
And the most important condition here is that the member is required only to contribute an equal amount to government minimal salary which is 20% of basic salary per month, and actually if a person is aware of what is social security may join the schemes so as to benefit with the protection towards old age life.
 And following the decline of traditional social assistance due to economic hardship it is obvious that the active generation has to prepare for their own life through joining pension schemes.

Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Sunday, March 28, 2010    

Well it’s true these women will find life very hard during their old days.The pension matter falls under the topic Social Welfare and Ageing.However, I will give my views here as a reply to Sophia Mwita’s question.In Europe,especially in Sweden and Denmark banks offer a sort of pension account to private people.Therefore one can save for example 1000Tsh. Per month untill one reaches an age of 60 -65 years.Therefore these women can save such an amount of money for their future needs.They will then receive their money on monthly basis with some interest.At the same time I think the government has to give pension to all Tanzanians from the age of 60 years old.This will be a sort of general pension.

What we need here is for our banks in Tanzania to arrange a private pension account.We have to convince all Tanzanians to open such pension account so that they will have a bright future in their old age.So peolple will get a general pension from the government or company and in addition they will receive money from their private pension account.In this way we shall be able to eliminate even poverty in Tanzania.




Sophia Mwita  : Sunday, March 28, 2010    
  Thank you for your contribution, my concern is on the women in the informal sector who have no membership to any pension fund and therefore not contributing to any pension scheme so during their old ages (unproductive stage) will not obtain any pension benefits (assistants). What kind of life will they live during this globalised environment where the traditional way of assistance i.e. neibourhood, family etc. has been broken due to economic hardship.

Some of these women are currently producing (i.e. batik making, food processing etc.) but I don't know why they are hasitating to join to pension funds for them to obtain benefits during their unproductive days. Is it because of lacking information on the issues of social security schemes, neglecting without any genuine reasons or what.

How can they be assisted, please I request for your opinion, .

Sophia - Dar es salaam.


hanif tuwa  : Thursday, March 18, 2010    

As Dr. Khamis, i think from Dr Lunogelo's experience with lifestyles and challenges that the old people face in Muheza district we could draw some important lessons on the reality of old people's social welfare in Tanzania, particularly in the rural setting - where over 70% of the total population lives and communities are more poverty-stricken compared to the urban settings. it may bring to the fore the "rural-urban" dimension of the issue at the table.   


Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Monday, March 15, 2010    

Dear Dr.H.Bohela Lunogelo,could you please elaborate the experiences of the old people in Muheza district!




Dr H.Bohela Lunogelo  : Monday, March 15, 2010    
  Dear Contributors,
It is uplifting to hear a voice from Antakae Village in Amani! I lived in Mgambo and Bulwa villages and have a small iliki farm at Mikwinini village.

I therefore have some insights of how aged people experience in places like Amani where the plantation economy is predominant and as you get old it becomes increasingly difficult to earn sufficient wage (kama kibarua kwenye mashamba ya chai au kupasua mbao au kuchima iliki).

 I therefore expect our friend Riziki to share with us on the experiences of old people in Muheza district.

Riziki NassoroJ,Magrmbe  : Saturday, February 27, 2010    
                 Greetings to all,
    Before anything Iwould like to take this time to thanks all contributers of those posted topics which made us to expose our ideas to the public through internet,also I take this chance to welcome mr.hanif tuwa to the table of discussion.
                thank you for joing us sir,
             magembe Riziki Nassoro

hanif tuwa  : Thursday, February 25, 2010    
  Greetings to all, allow me to foremost introduce myself: hanif tuwa serving as assistant lecturer in the dept of political science and public administration at the University of Dar es Salaam's College of Education (DUCE).

I have read, albeit partially, some rich contirbutions on the topic. evidently, the issue of social security is critical and to myview, need to be discussed within the context of our public administration/governance. under this context, structures are driven not necessarily by needs or for their potential value-adding characteristic rather - their political relevancy (whether or not economic irrelevant)!! How many executive agencies do we have todate? how many regulatory authorities?....MANY, maybe too many if you assess their relevance but insufficient if you consider their political relevancy. By political relevancy i mean, sarcastically, politicians endorse these new structures so long as it does not adversely affect their core interests, for example, increased scrutiny from public. I see executive agencies and regulatory authorities as sharing one important feature - increased autonomy from ministerial establishments - which makes them favourable for politicians because as they become hived-off from ministers' portfolios. One contributor suggested that "there should more openness and accountability" if the social security regulatory authority is to perform" (not exact words, of course). My question is: with greater autonomy, how can accountability of the to-be established regularoty authority be ensured?

Consider this: i studied one executive agency and a regulatory authority (for masters thesis), trying to establish whether greater autonomy has enhanced performance accountability of these organizations to the public (their clients). Findings and hence conslusion was that: greater autonomy 'had' improved moderately their efficiency, but detachment from political scrutiny made them less accessible and accountable to the public fopr their performance (results of their operations). 

I will let this sink in your minds comrades....   


Festo E. Maro  : Sunday, February 14, 2010    

This is absolutely great; there is much to contribution which can inform the policy and actually widening the scope of existing policies targeting the aged and vulnerable groups. Dr. Khamis suggested categorization of different beneficiaries within the social protection framework. However the national aged policy mention different disadvantaged group but the policy implementation works in blanket and poor services delivery is business as usual. I agree with categorization of all aged population in, informal and formal sectors, poor widows (with more than three dependants), and disabled. In fact the government has made some considerable progress in establishing the social protection framework, among others it intends to serve the marginalized poor communities. Also there are efforts in progress in considering pension schemes for the informal sectors which employ about 90% of the population in the country.

Classical problems which aged population is facing as Mohamed Safieledin cited, is the increasing trend of dependants to the aged population with limited compensation refund. With increasing costs of living, aged beneficiaries have disproportionately spent more to dependants than to themselves. This has negatively affected their welfare both in monetary and material terms. Here Mohamed hinted the need to strengthening parallel programmes which could be function in reducing the risk of over burden to the aged population.

Thanks for now!


Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Tuesday, January 19, 2010    


 I do agree with Mohammed el Munir Safieldin that a social protection system should also care for single mothers, widows, people with disabilities, aging people and vulnerable children.However, we have to have one security system for those who are eligible for pension that is from 60 years old irrespective of their contribution to the society.This is because some of these people have not worked at all but they are citizens of Tanzania. The other branch of the system could fall under the Ministry of Social Affairs (if it were in EU-country).This branch could take care of those who have left schools,colleges,universities and have no jobs,widows,children,single mothers and disable people.

Yes indeed social welfare systems in Africa are limited and ministries that are supposed to do that job are not capable of the work and have no experience. Competitive people should be given posts in such a social security organization and not politicians. Accountability, responsibility and transparency should be given priority.   





Mohamed el Munir Safieldin  : Sunday, January 17, 2010    

Social welfare and protection system should be multi-dimensional targeting various vulnerabilities and not one group such as the aging people.


I thank Mr. Festo E. Maro for his contribution and the questions he posed with regard to the management of the to-be-established Social Security Regularity Authority. With no intention to undermine the main question posed in this contribution, I would like to propose widening the scope of social welfare to make it a net work of well coordinated schemes that, when taken together, they address all vulnerable segments of the society whether or not they contribute (or contributed at a previous stage) to a social welfare fund. The reason I am making this proposal is that a number of studies in Africa and Latin America have shown that an increasing number of aging people is using their welfare benefits to support their grand children (many of them orphaned by HIV/AIDS) or their daughters who have become single-mothers. This sharing of benefits by the recipients within an extended family network benefits some unintended members but decreases the material benefits of the intended members. The ultimate result of such situations is that the beneficiary and the individuals he/she feels obliged to support will all survive at levels below descent human living standard. The overall objective of achieving social welfare for the society will be attained only when we have a social protection system that cares for all vulnerable groups such as single mothers; widows; people with disabilities; aging people; and vulnerable children.


It is also important to note that the number of people who contribute/contributed to pension funds and other contributory social welfare systems in developing countries are limited compared to other vulnerable groups in these societies. This is attributable to reasons that have to deal with types of employment and the relatively recent history of welfare programs in these countries.


Who should manage such schemes or system? Certainly the state has a prime responsibility here. However, for the purpose of accountability and transparency, senior technical positions should be offered on competitive grounds to those who have the required technical competencies, commitment, vision and zeal. Beneficiaries and civil society organizations should be represented (as appropriate) at the central and sub-national levels of the management structure.


How should such management systems work? The decentralization of the management structure of social protection is important. The identification of beneficiaries and the assessment of benefits/impact on them must be entrusted to accountable management structures at district levels.




Munir Safieldin
Deputy Representative
UNICEF Tanzania Office


Festo E. Maro  : Sunday, January 10, 2010    

Dear members and contributors of TAKNET on behalf of my self and management, we wish you all Happy New Year! In this New Year we have good plans of introducing many other new topics which are central to our nation economic development agenda. So keep on visiting this forum and make your much needed contributions for shaping the policy making in order to assist the government to attain the development goals and targets.

Having introducing in brief our future plans, let me congratulates all contributors for making the discussion sailing. I would also like to use this opportunity to advance my apology for being silence and to welcome new members, who are Dorosella. F. Bishanga and Riziki Nassoro. You are mostly welcome in this forum to make an impact.

I would like to inform Nassoro Riziki and others that the unique feature of this forum is preparation of a policy brief after closure of the discussion topic. This means that your suggestion for preparation of a discussion summary for wider dissemination has been catered for by programme design. Some of the policy brief prepared are available at TAKNET website.

Now let talk about what have been discussed so far and later I will stimulate the discussion by introducing to you policy teasing questions. From Jason’s contribution of inadequacy institution working for the interest of the aged population to Riziki’s contribution of weak policy targeting and implementation to me all of these contributions have significant criticism which can be considered by policy makers. I mean they can review how they implement aged policy and how they monitor its implementation. Recently I came across news from one of our local news papers saying IMF found social security schemes in the country have myriad of problems and directed the government to establish a semi autonomous body to oversee contribution of members are appropriately used and to the benefit of social security schemes member’s. Critical reflection comes in my mind over the management composition of this semi autonomous body so that it can work independently without the influence of politicians or high influential businessperson’s having political affiliation.  The following are questions which I would like to ask you in order to get your opinion over this Social Security Regulatory Authority to be established.  Who do you think should form the management? How should it work? Should this authority also work for the interest of aged people? If it will consider interest of old people then what are issues need to be sort out first?


Riziki NassoroJ,Magrmbe  : Friday, December 25, 2009    

Dear members of knowledge connecticity  programm, I would like to take this chance to thanks Dr .Khamis omary for his Intellectual contribution,and other members we need the programme to attract other senior scholars so that to provide their Intellectual understanding on the social,political and economic matters around us, so big up Dr. Khamis and other contributors, pia tunaomba taha ikiwezekana kuwe na jarida ambalo litaweza kuya sambaza maoni yetu kwa jamii,hata wale ambao hawawezi kutumia mtandao wa Internet waweze kuelimika kama itawezekana, huu ni ushauri wangu kwa waandaaji wa programme hii maana nimeyasoma mawazo na ushauru wa wa dau unafaa kusomwa na jamii ya wengi,
  Riziki Nassoro.J.Magembe


Riziki NassoroJ,Magrmbe  : Friday, December 25, 2009    
   Dear members of TAKNET first of all I would like to welcome all of you to join to our organization which deal with older people,I  will try as possible to make it possible to every contributor of this topic to overview the real facts on how our freedom fighters they are suffuring,let us not to condem the government at all but also ours as an Intellectual we can see how we can help older people,most of them they do not have good houses,better social services such as health services despite the government give them freely to have those identiefied services but frankly speaking they still not being provided to the services at required time, so let us jion together inorder to help them by mobilizing our influences to the community
                    Riziki Nassoro,J.Magembe,  
          a student at the universist of Dar es salaam,Tanzania
                        Box 236,
                      muheza Tanga

Riziki NassoroJ,Magrmbe  : Saturday, December 19, 2009    
   Dear membes of Taknet in the field of Aging explores most of decision makers who have some formal responsibility in the development of aging progamms and policies making have not yet show the real ways of helping older population who are still suffering with alot of social,economic nad political matters but mostly their services to be given as the plan of the government are not provided to the required time
   Actual the fomulated policies also are more theoritical to large extent than practical thats why its implimantation it is invain at all,Ido wonder why older people in most o African country like Tanzania they are not accommodated well while were the freedom figthers but now days they not be considared at all.
     I talking this not by bias but it is by experience through our formed organization deal with older people found at muheza district in Tanga region known as ASGOHES which means AFRICAN STUDENTS GOOD HEART SOCIETY which tried to the voice of older people at the region because we  have realize that they have been isolated by the authority concerned. so let us join together for the rigth of older people by appreciating their portantialities since Independence
       magembe jr

jason nkyabonaki  : Wednesday, December 2, 2009    

The topic is very interesting and touching. Basic social services from public institutions are not adequate when it comes to protection of the aged. Take an example of the rural areas where some one has to go as far as 80 or plus kilometers to meet a district hospital. This consume more time, energy and travelling cost making it more expensive than going to the near by private dispensary. And some e.g. in Kagera opt to herbs like muarobaini or famous malaria cure tree"Mubilizi".

It should be known that most old people are not covered by pension schemes. There is need to take census to identify how many senior citizens are covered and those who are not covered by pension schemes. Later the government has to enforce pension schemes to pay retirees their benefits on time. Those who are not covered, safety nets should be designed targeting the poor and marginalized senior citizens. Otherwise the ongoing tendency of denying and despising senior citizen (pensioner and non-pensioner) is against human rights. Delays of pension benefits and denying aged people basic social services from public institution are an indication of corruption to the detrimental of aged community in the country.


Riziki NassoroJ,Magrmbe  : Saturday, November 21, 2009    
   Iam Riziki Nassoro J,Magembe of University of Dar-es-Saalam honest speaking I,m fill fine to join knowledge connectivity programm which make me and other junior scholars in collaboration with senior scholars to contribute our views in various topic being posted to us though internet,
           Big up those planners and contributors
                       Thanks a lot
                       magembe junior
                         Box 236

Dorosella .F. Bishanga  : Tuesday, November 10, 2009    
  Hi all,

My  name is Dorosella F. Bishanga. I am happy to have been approved to join the network of proffessionals and get or add up my thinking into various social-economic and political discussions aiming at bringing (some if not all) positive changes into our community.

I hope to meet you again in this forum soonest.


Festo E. Maro  : Wednesday, October 7, 2009    

I accept that the forum has been very quite both from contributors and moderators. However, the essence of this forum is for the contributors to discuss among themselves and raising issues while the moderator keeps the discussion in check.
As I was reading the contributor's point’s one question came in mind but before I proceed I have to acknowledge contributions from Dr. Khamis, Mr. Besha, Omary, Deus and others for raising up good points.
The question I had is on the inclusion of old women in the planning processes starting at the grass-root level. I believe our country is a member for the implementation of the Madrid International plan of action which stipulated the need to include old age people in the planning processes. 
I will also like to hear from Dr. Khamis regarding this matter from Scandinavian perspectives. Though I don’t know whether they rectified the plan of action or not!

Please late open our discussion again and make it live once more!! 


mombo ernest kamwaya  : Monday, September 14, 2009    

Mr Festo Maro put the ball 'rolling" on social security system and asked the rest of us brainstorm on

  • What institutional arrangement should be done to improve the welfare of the current old people and next generation?

  • What are the basic social services old people should pay?

  • How should the government eliminate discrimination in financial, psychological and physical abuse and other crimes against older persons, including intergenerational violence?

  • How should we promote intergenerational solidarity with the goal of maintaining and improving social cohesion across age groups?

I think the first three questions could be answered by coping from the well developed Swedish system. I say so because if we try to deviate we will do things wrongly just as we did politically and administratively soon after independence, and ended up "equally dogmatically" in shambles. The last question would be the introduction of harsh penalties to criminals. 


Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Saturday, September 12, 2009    

Thanks Mr.Kamwaya.Yes our government can copy the Social Security System from Scandinavian countries(Sweden,Denmark and Norway).These countries have been helping Tanzania since our independence and they will be willing to show Tanzania how to start such a system. It’s not too late to slowly create such a Social Security System combined with our African tradition so that our elders will still have contact with their children and grandchildren.

Let us all Tanzanians, those who areliving inside the country and those living abroad, join hands in this subject.We must create a good future for the next generation and in this way we can eradicate povery in Tanzania.



mombo ernest kamwaya  : Thursday, September 10, 2009    
  I am very much impressed by Dr Khamis's contribution. Most of us admire the way the Swedish people have managed keep things right with the Social Security Funds System. Indeed, the Tanzanian Govt at the end will have to be blamed if things are not put straight right now. We have copied a lot of good things from Europe and why not copy the Social Security System from our old Swedish friends? Dr Khamis, thanks; many of us understand your point.

William Joel Mkubwa Mdundo  : Thursday, September 10, 2009    
  I entirely agree with Dr. Khamis's contribution that the Issue of Social Welfare for the Ageing in Tanzania should not be left to the Central Government alone, but rather, should be a responsibility of all social players, including Religious Organisations, CBOs, NGOs, Local Governments and above all, all citizens- corporate and unincorporated, young and old.

But above all, we need a well articulated Policy supported by a well defined Legal Framework that would define the different Schemes of supporting the Elderly, whether living with their immediate relatives or are cared for in special homes for the Old. It would also provide Tax breaks for those wishing to save for their retirement, those contributing to social schemes for the elderly or those who will invest in the business of constructing and running of homes for the old.

We also need to put in place Laws which will regulate the operations of the different schemes and homes for the elderly and which will also provide for stiff penalties for those who will attempt to take undue advantage in the business of caring for the old.

Lest we forget! All of us have the potential to become frail and helpless with age and we will need the support of the Society as a whole before we peacefully die.We need to be sure that we will be cared for in time of need.

William J. M Mdundo

John Ernest kitoka  : Monday, September 7, 2009    
  The problems of the elderly are far beyond the current forms of both traditional and conventional social security schemes in Tanzania.They should widely be understood within the broader spectrum of various categories of fluctuations,shocks and crisis. The vulnerabilities that befall the poor can also be a result of structural and endemic entitlement deficits that constitute shortfalls in the crucial dimensions of well-being, such as nutrition, health and housing that persist and are regularly reproduced in the economy.

Such deficits have a tendency to reproduce themselves because the poor remain poor year after year.The elderly poverty of Tanzania is, for that matter is embedded in the economic and social structures and institutions both traditional and modern.An attempt to ameliorate the elderly poverty and socially protect the elderly must constitute broad based policy frameworks.Accordingly,there are three elements in which such frameworks can be constructed:

The multiple dimension of social security, which covers a full spectrum of phenomena or domains over which protection is sought.These could include food, nutritional security,health,aspects of employment or work related insecurity, old age cover, children education, access to legal aid and so on.

The second element pertains to different different social dimensional contingencies in the population. This includes groups such as children, women, the aged, migrants/refugees, the unemployed and so on.Special interest groups can also be identified;eg,domestic workes, special occupational groups such as fishermen, miners, and small scale farmers.Different groups could also be identified by age and gender.

The third element is what we call alternative provisioning systems for addressing specific dimensions of social protection. State based provision, market based systems, employer/enterprise linked systems, occupational welfare funds, trade unions or member-based organizations, other solidarity or community based institutions, informal or non-contractual family/household/lineage/kinship/mechanisms, intra house hold and intergenerational transfer mechanisms, NGO based interventions, national universal coverage systems insurance schemes and so on.

These three elements create a kind of matrix that can help investigate modes and forms of cover enjoyed by specific sections of population in a way that addresses particular insecurities and deficits. Create a social security systems that that will allow the design and implementation of financial accessing mechanisms for the poor. That system must underscore the principle of socio-economic security for all as a right, not driven and inspired by politically inspired programmes.

Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Sunday, September 6, 2009    

I understand that some think that we can do a sort of  ”HARAMBEE” campaing for our elders and don’t leave the whole matter to the government. This is not the matter of the government only since the religious organisations like churhes in Tanzanzia and BAKWATA are supposed to help in solving this problem.BAKWATA for example is receiving a lot of money from the Muslim world in order not to build building for prayers but also to help the eldres, the poor and the ophans. Yes private people for example can start contributing by bulding such Elders’ Homes in every region as we are helping building schools. But at the end the government hand has to be there in helping such contributers. For example we have in our counrty what we we call “Small miners”. These are private Tanzania miners who are now receiving help from the government through STAMICO. Similar thing can be created with regard to our elders and ask for help from the ministry concerned.




rm besha  : Friday, September 4, 2009    

hello dearest members.

i must say it has been one very exciting journey reading the above posted contributions. as much as i would like to agree with you all on the question of policies for addressing the issue at hand,i beg to differ...our country is run using many different development, health, cultural policies to mention a few..the ones that are prioritized or fully implemented are ones that are important to the PEOPLE. by "people", i do not mean u,him, her and me, i mean them....i hope u all get my point...policies may be put forward and may be published and crammed by each one of us, but unless they are important to "them", they will never be implemented.....i do not mean to put u in despair,I am only being factual.

even though the government has the responsibility and duty of providing and caring for the elders, we also have the same obligation as fellow human beings and citizens just as the government has..i am talking from a humanitarian point of view. if we can sit down in "vikaos" and raise millions that can be spent in hours for drinks, flowers, cake and food, why should we not do the same for the elders as it is now becoming a problem? i know a few friends here in dar es salaam who have their own children but decided to adopt another child out of generosity and good will....can we not do the same with the elders??we are so selfless, to an extent that we pretend not to see the agony the elders are facing..for the ones who have taken a bus or a train, trolley, tram etc in europe or the u.s.a. there is a special section for the elders right after the door....this is how much the western world cares….do we dare to even give up our seats when such people get on the bus here in tz???and we dare command our government to do what we openly cannot do….

i am trying to say that change begins with us...we have continually been blaming the government and leaving everything to them so much that they decide to put them aside and deal with what benefits only them....i beleive in optimism but leaving this to policy formulation alone is not enough...

on the question of intergenerational violence,it is only to do with factors such as inadequacy and inefficiency of existing police stations in areas affected, justice not being served, ignorance and negligence of the old people (by ourselves as pointed out by Irene if I am not mistaken)....this thus takes us to the issue of homes for the elderly, if this age group is not even sure of what to eat at the end of the day or throughout the day, and the kind of lives they live are full of fear of brutal murder for mistaken accusations, i would rather these people were securely sheltered in homes (in urban areas) where they can have all that we have-recreational facilities, health services, libraries, social clubs u name it and live a peaceful life....i and many more Tanzanians, am sure will rather the taxes they pay cover for such services for our beloved....they are people who brought us, our parents and u into this world and some served this nation faithfully....infact, some day we too will need to enjoy what we planted when we grow old…

the question of services they can or cannot pay for is more upon ourselves(the service providers),what happens when they are not to pay the bus fare and a whole bunch gets on a daladala(as is the case for soldiers here in tz.???)but if a law is passed and there is some kind of control such as i.d. for those covered, certain services can be free for them, or the price  can be slightly lower...in the western world,there is social security fund which covers the unemployed and the aged and sometimes newly born babies and their mothers(correct if i am wrong)-it is a whole new topic all together but in a way it covers  the social welfare for the aged.....i do not know how feasible it is for us but i am certain it is very necessary.....

that's all that popped into my head today..


Festo E. Maro  : Thursday, September 3, 2009    

Actually I have to say the discussion is very delightful and rich of ideas. Discussants of the topic have experience and solid grip of basic concern to our social policy and ageing population in particular. The point Kurts made me to refer to the traditional family systems and social security arrangements. What we observed now is role reversal in care giving because of lacking a secured social systems reinforced from street, ward, village, district and national level.

Grandparents should be taken care by youth and not otherwise. This signal instability of the particular society, since for how long will the old live? Or what income grandparents earn to sustain the demands of raising a child properly? Few rich can manage but majority poor its day dream. We need to revisit our policies which shape our institutions. I like the question from one of contributors which ask about the role of ministry of social welfare then if all these problems persist.
How should the ministry ensure the old generations are not over burden with living cost and caring for the young ones?


Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Thursday, September 3, 2009    

Thanks Kurt for your information. This problem of grandparents taking care of their grandchildren whose parents have died of HIV/AIDS is well known all over Tanzania. The government does not help such eldres at all. This problem surfaced many years ago in Tanga in such a way that it was horrible to hear stories concerning those elders who helped their dear grandchildren.

In short, the social structure in Tanzania is very poor indeed one wonders if there is actually a ministry in Tanzania that work on social problems!

We have to fight poverty by helping the elders, the poor and the ophans.




Deus Msipotwa Kibamba  : Thursday, September 3, 2009    
  I have read Kurt's email with great interest and would like to thank the writer for the experiential remarks. I totally agree with what has been reported. This is why government policy towards the social wellbeing of both the aged and children is of such importannce. I visited Makete sometime back and this was the situation. Infact, Kagera may be better in my analysis since the support system from within the communities and from remittances arriving from the many 'Washomire' in Dar and abroad kind of relieve these old and children a bit.

I talked to some literate/middle class men and women in Bukoba as I got my 'beer and Senene' at the lake side in February this year and it was being confirmed to this effect. Makete is just a disaster. This is not to suggest any less attention to some region over the other, but the opposite. There should be a nation-wide policy to mitigate such difficulties.

What is the experience of others? Let us discuss them if we have to find solutions, at all !

Deus Msipotwa Kibamba

Kurt Madoerin  : Wednesday, September 2, 2009    
  Kwa Wazee is an NGO based in Nshamba/Kagera. We would like to share our (practical) experiences in social protection for elders with the interested audience

Many grandparents – mostly grandmothers – are caring for grandchildren who have lost the parents. Many grandparents have also lost their African support network mainly due to HIV/AIDS. These groups form the target audience for the program.
The targeting policy (available as document) gives the first priority to poor elder-headed households wich care for grandchildren.
Second priority is given to grandparents living alone and without any support from the family.
The program has been evaluated – using control groups. The impact of even small amounts is evident.
For further information please open the attached short overview.

Kurt Madoerin

soster richard kizigha  : Monday, August 31, 2009    
  nimetafakari kwa makini sera yahuduma kwa wazee na hoja juu ya namna serikali yetu inavyotapanya rasilimali zetu kiasi cha kushindwa kabisa kulihudumia kundi hili la watanzania wenzetu waliovuja jasho maisha yao yote kujenga taifa.
kwa ujumla mfumo mzima wa malipo ya uzeeni kwa wastaafu unawaengua wakulima (ambao ndio zaidi ya 80% ya watu wote) katika kuzifikia huduma hizo duni.
pamoja na kuhudumia sehemu ndogo sana ya ahitaji bado huduma ni hafifu na si za uhakika.
yote hayo, pamoja na mambo mengine, yanachangiwa zaidi na jinsi tunavyotumia rasilimali zetu na tunavyopanga vipaumbele. viongozi wetu wamekiwa walafi wa kupinduki na, kwa mfano, ukirejea hoja alizotoa bungeni waziri wa madini juu ya namna walivyouza mgodi wa kiwira, utakata tamaa na kujiuliza ni lini watanzania wataamka na kupigania utajiri wao. ni wajibu wetu sassa kujadili maswala yanayohusu mustakabali wa taifa letu na kusema IMETOSHA kuibiwa na MAKUWADI WA SOKO HURIA.

Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Friday, August 28, 2009    

The tax we pay in Scandinavia(Sweden,Denmark and Norway) covers medical care,school fees(for the grond education) and pension.This means the Tanzania goverment can afford to conduct such a tax system. If every citizen had identity number it won’t be a problem to pay pension to our elders living villages. There banks in every region or big towns all over Tanzania.

Thanks Mr.Maro. Most of our MP’s had not a chance of living and work in Europe, otherwise they would have strong points to present in our Parliament regarding the social security.Yes we have our so called African Social Security where we have to depend to our children and grandchildren to help us in our old age.But we are giving them a burden and sometimes they can’t economically afford.

Its time for our Parliament to take this social problem seriously.



Festo E. Maro  : Thursday, August 27, 2009    

Applause for Dr. Khamis approach, “think globally act locally”. His points are clear and right at the center of the problem. Such points should have been debated in our parliament, but in general the policy discussions are quite and avoid facing the reality.

 The problem of population growth in our country is a reality. This is because we more or less experiencing demographic transition (decreased mortality and increased fertility rates). Development economists warn that this problem of population growth has negative effects to population growth. If the policies will not be directed to have quality population, then we will the problem of decreased output per worker. High dependency ratios will be burden to few working class. This will have adverse short run effects on growth.


Dr. Khamis and Deus ideas make me to think that our country is facing “resource dilution and resource diversion effect” as well as “myopic implementation policy environment”. If we are to get where Dr. Khamis suggested and to avoid what dues explained then the government has to avoid resource diversion and resource dilution.

The suggestions are achievable if all leakage of public funds are controlled and transparent management of natural resources. Then we have clear institutions for implementing long term policies and programme in well coordinated manner for the improvement of social wellbeing of Tanzanians. How should the government eliminate discrimination in, financial, psychological and physical abuse and other crimes against older persons, including intergenerational violence? Is it achievable if resource dilution and resource diversion will be controlled?


IRENE ALENGA  : Thursday, August 27, 2009    
  Thank you Dr Khamis for your insightful contribution. while I agree with you on the suggestions I advise that we don't give a blind eye to the systems that exist in our traditional set up. The African Cultural setting has a roles set up in such a way that every stage of our lives has functions and benefits. While Old peoples homes work well in the western Society, it may be close to impossible to implement the system in a setting where the elderly in society are considered as the vessels of knowledge and wisdom, traditions and values, executors of rites, owners and rightful guardians of ancestral land.. we ourselves send our children to see their grandparents during school holidays so that they can be toughened up or learn about their family traditions since we are too busy earning money to have that time to spend with them.

From an African set up, at least socially sending the old/elderly to homes is equivalent to killing them........Slow psychological torture to actual physical death.   If we send them off to institutions while the institution of the family already has a system of absorbing them and specific roles which they are to undertake then we are cutting them off from the society  which is very much around us. I don't have the correct statistics but nearly 70% of Tanzanians live in the rural areas others have migrated to the urban areas due to search for greener pastures. as you rightfully put it in your introduction a large chunk of the 70 percent fall into the category you proposed. Can the system afford to make homes for them?

The idea of giving compulsory pension to anyone over 60 years old is good, but where shall we pool the money from? How are we going to reach the Elderly/ old in the rural areas? do we need an institution to lobby for their rights given that with age comes some physical challenge?

Festo E. Maro  : Thursday, August 27, 2009    

What is the policy then? This was the question asked by Kibamba. His contribution is an eye opener for us to rethink again on social security policies and schemes in Tanzania. If one think critically on the suffering of old people or retirees you could think of renaming social security in the context of Tanzania. At one point I thought it’s a “Social Impoverishment Mechanisms”.

I don’t mean to scorn the social system but it’s what we see how the clients of social security schemes are mistreated! Why is it always the weak, the poor, the marginalized, or those who lives in rural areas often subjected to undesirable circumstances in social security systems? These are issues which need to be debated at higher organs of policy and law enforcement like parliament.

 To the contrary, as Deus explained Community Development Fund (CDF) and other remunerations to parliamentarians are taking the lead. I don’t mean it’s a bad initiative but the role of parliamentarian is overlapping if it will be implemented. Other organs will be redundant then. There is need for feasibility study by an independent group to see how should it operate and how does it differ from other existing structures, how will it increase the national budget, how will it be financed, how will it be monitored and evaluated and how will it contribute to economic development of the community and entire country as whole.
These parameters need to be realistic and achievable. The government should invest in investments which will likely to have high population dense in terms of effects. Social welfare protection shouldn’t be ignored in implementing such projects and high consideration should be given to old age populations. To what extent does CDF takes considerations of old population?


Omari Mwinyi Khamis  : Thursday, August 27, 2009    

I do agree with Mr.Maro that we have various groups of our elders inTanzania. I do hereby add another group of elders who are living in villages and being taken care of their children and relatives. This is a big group and most of them have worked in their fields and they don’t have pension money at all.

The present social security system has actually failed to address the various problems facing our elders. In order to improve the welfare of the present old generation and the future generation the following could be suggested.

1.      Every Tanzanian should receive pension as from 60 years of age.This pension should be divided into the following catagories :- A) General pension money to all Tanzanians. B) Additional pension money to be given to those who have worked in government ministries,parastatals and companies.This could be similar to the present pension system but with some modification.C) Every worker should have a sort of “pension insurance”.This will be a part of his salary, almost 5% that will be compulsory saved in a sort of insurance company. D) At the age from 60 years the pension should be paid to a Tanzanian citizen throughout his/her life time(as long as he/she lives).

2.      The government has to build institutions such as Old People Homes. Such homes could have heir own medical doctors and nurses to take care of our elders.Those elders who cannot be taken care of their childern or relatives could turn to such homes. All EU countries have such homes. The government through tax payment can finance such homes.

3.      The general pension money has to be calculated according to the current minimum living standard so that those who are living outside “Old People Homes” can afford living alone.

4.      Tanzanian workers have to be encourage to have “private pension “. They can save money in the bank for their future. Our banks could introduce such services in the country.
 The Qur''an says the we should take care of our parents at their old age.
  Ramadhan Karim


Deus Msipotwa Kibamba  : Wednesday, August 26, 2009    
  Dear Mr Festo Maro and all others in this discussion,

Allow me to start with a note of applause ! You are really doing a great job in coordinating and moderating people's diverse views. Once again, I hope we can do something with the issues emerging in the discussions. I am so impressed with the direction and diversity of the debates.

Coming back to the subject matter, I think we can do more than what we are currently trying to do. Infact to be true to myself, I think the political will to prepare a serious system and framework for good retirement is not there at the moment. We have seen how former workers in factories and corporations, who were honest have been struggling to make ends meet. I remember speaking to a former RTC (for the sake of the younger generation, RTC means Regional Trading Corporation) when I visited Kidondo early this year and he revealed how it was being difficult to survive without any pension moneys. He has been trying to use his education in 'sort of modern' farming but the challenges overweight the successes. We have a lot of retirees today without ant any pension going into their hands. This is group one of the aged without any welfare entitlements !

The second group of former workers are those who dilligently toiled to provide services including as Teachers, doctors, rail workers, nusres, engineers and politicians, but have ended up receiving an ending pension. According to one retiree in Karagwe (I visited Karagwe in February), his pension ended in 2007 after he had received about around Tshs. 2,000 per month for a number of years since his retirement. Asked to explain the conditions under which his pension payments came to a close, this Senior citizen did not know. This group of former employees have had very little pay, whose calculus was not even known to them and some of them could have their terminal pay terminated without notice or knowledge. This is the second group.

The other group is well known. This is a group of workers who have demanded for their pay for many years without having to see anything come into their hands (since their bank accounts automatically got deleted for not having funds in them). We have witnessed the former EAC workers who are still meeting todate to strategize on how best to demand their rights. Some of them ofcourse received some pay in the past, but, like the second group , the payment was was peanut and the calculation was not explained to the payees.

Still in the same group, you have people in the like of Mzee Milton Mfanye whom I held discussions with in Sinyanga when I visited in December 2008. He has worked for a private security company in Shinyanga for many years, but doubts his pension contributions were ever filed to the respective authorities in Dar es Salaam. He has been in a struggle ever since his employment was irregularly and illegally terminated his employer who has shown a lot of arrogance even as Mzee Mfanye attempted to file a case in the courts. At some point, Mr Mfanye was ready to receive from his former emplyer as little as 3 million but the rich man changed his mind and refused to pay anything to Mr Mfanye. At the moment Mr Mfanye's issue is being dealt with by labour dispute arbitrators in Dar es Salaam but speaking to Mzee Mfanye by phone recently, it seemed the his health and livelihood condition had greatly deteriorated that he is not sure the payments will see him alive even if he had to win the case against his former employer. What are doing to these citizens who have at some point and for many many years served Tanganyika and Tanzania so dilligently? There are so many cases in the private and public sector alike of contributions that were never even filed.

Continues ...

Deus Msipotwa Kibamba  : Wednesday, August 26, 2009    
  What policy responses then? This is why I said initially that we are lacking the necessary political will to deal with these violations of workers rights and retirees pension payments. In my view, the politicians we have in power today are as arrogant. Instead of debating social security for all citizens of Tanzania in Parliamentary deleberations,we have seen and heard them discuss and deliberate on bills for the welfare of politicians. That their 7 million is not taxed except just a million, is shameful. That they are now raising for themselves from 7 million in total payments per month to over 12 million is as shameful and ridiculous. That they have just passed the CDF (it has slightly changed in name) despite the flaws already learnt from Kenya and Malawi, made known to them by Civil Society is so dissapointing. I asked some of them how they would manage the fund without book keepers last year and they failed to answer. My second question over how they would build the roads without Engineers was too thorny. My last wonder over what then could be the role of the office of DED in development when MPs will also be administering and implementing projects went without a comment. Suddenly, the bill has been passed and I doubt President Kikwete has not assented it into law.

We are seing increased insecurity, both physical and social but what we are seing is not a strategy to address public insecurity to the entire nation but isolated plans to provide individual security to some leaders who, out of being surrounded by too insecure and poor masses feel not safe driving alone in the Landcruisers, Lexus and Hammer vehicles as well as living in their multi- billion estates. And you will be suprised, the short-of-staff police Force quickly deploys a whole group of officers to provide patrol to them. This type of security is not sustainable, let them be warned ! Sleep is good when your neighbours are also sleeping !

So let us find a way to secure socially those at Tandale and Kimanzichana markets in towns and Udekwa and Kituntu in the rural areas. Without doing so, we will not be safe and secure however rich we may think we have become ! How to do that can be a matter of consultation with the wider citizenry and that is why TAKNET and other fora exist.

Best discussions, Deus Msipotwa Kibamba.

Festo E. Maro  : Tuesday, August 18, 2009    

Thanks Mr. Adam Mayingu for the insight contribution about the biasness of the welfare policies and recent government efforts in adjusting the balance. However, the Government efforts to develop the informal sector social securities are not very well known compared to social securities in formal sectors.

Due to the broad base of the informal sector activities there is need for tailor made programmes for the poor in a generalized insecurity environment such as Tanzania. On this respect am not very much convinced much has been done relative to its complex nature of the informal sector. I would appreciate if you could bring into the surface the progress made on the informal sector social security arrangement.


ADAM MAYINGU  : Tuesday, August 4, 2009    
  I am made to understand that the ministry responsible for social security conducted a survey on the informal sector; mainly to find ways of incorporating them to our social security system. As we are all aware; the coverage of social security currently is limited to formal sector,and the existing policy is advocating for an extension of these services to the informal sector.
The current social security regulatory act; has opened up the "market" where by the private sector can now come in; and theoretically this means we can expect competitive services to members in this sector.

Health is costly and the biggest challenge to the senior citizens much as there are known/unknown arrangement that they are entitled to "free" medical services to Govt health outlets. In these outlets;many if not everything is out of stockh, which means the "free" service to the elderly remains in "campaigns". I guess the NHIF pilot? for the elderly/retired members to continue getting services can be a good point

The intergenerational solidarity ; to me can only be a talking point once we have comprehensive social security services with a relatively high percentage of population beyond the current 10-15%? of the working people

Festo E. Maro  : Wednesday, July 29, 2009    

Dear Taknet members, we would like to introduce to you an important policy debate on social welfare and ageing yet it’s very silent in policy discussions. In principle this topic is about shaping your future by sharing ideas on the current issues affecting old age population at the moment. The introductory note narrates the context for you to be familiar with national ageing policy, strategy, targets and circumstances which the current old age populations are facing. All these facets are given in brief to stimulate your thinking on the achievement, challenges and failure of national ageing policy. We expect your contribution will help to inform the policy, institutional set up and other social benefits schemes which have been set up for the welfare of ageing population. Kindly reflect your thinking on the following questions as shown in the introductory note

  • What institutional arrangement should be done to improve the welfare of the current old people and next generation?

  • What are the basic social services old people should pay?

  • How should the government eliminate discrimination in, financial, psychological and physical abuse and other crimes against older persons, including intergenerational violence?

  • How should we promote intergenerational solidarity with the goal of maintaining and improving social cohesion across age groups?

  This topic has been closed. You can only view comments!  



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